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The nuclei include protons and neutrons, which ultimately consist of quarks and gluons.

On the microscopic scale of the natural elements, the building blocks of matter are elegantly classified in three major schemes : The question "when and how did it all start" is partly answered, to our present understanding, by the Big Bang model.

Is there some information on time or age, embedded in Nature and its nuclei, be it on cosmological, galactic, geologic, prehistorical or historical time scales ? Our research, extending to several disciplines, is devoted to these questions.

Literature and Links : stable nuclides which constitute matter as we know it, ourselves, our computer chips, the planets around us, have been synthesized in the stars of our Galaxy.

ATOMS AND NUCLIDES NUCLEAR CLOCKS RARE PARTICLES AND THEIR DETECTION AREAS OF RESEARCH      Archaelogy      Astrophysics      Enviromental and Geophysical Research      Biomedical Tracing Matter, as we understand it, is composed of a hierarchy of building blocks.

Living creatures, as well as our inanimate surroundings, are made of molecules, which in turn are made of atoms, whose mass resides almost entirely in the nuclei.

This brings about related questions : when were all other elements created or "synthesized"?

Radiometric dating is the technique used to date materials such as rocks, fossils and other geologic formations by observation and comparison of the abundance of radioactive isotopes and their decay process’s using known or theoretical decay rates. All matter is created with known chemical elements, each with its own atomic number which indicates the number of protons (positive particle) in its nucleus.Radiometric dating--the process of determining the age of rocks from the decay of their radioactive elements--has been in widespread use for over half a century.There are over forty such techniques, each using a different radioactive element or a different way of measuring them.(excellent pun and emphasis both mine) Among all the elements that occur on Earth are 150 stable isotopes and 158 unstable ones, making 308 in all.Of the 158 unstable ones, 121 are either extinct or exist only because they are constantly renewed, like carbon-14.He was employed at Caltech's Division of Geological & Planetary Sciences at the time of writing the first edition.

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