In a way this field, called geochronology, is some of the purest detective work earth scientists do.There are two basic approaches: relative age dating, and absolute age dating.Carbon-13 is the isotope of carbon that has 7 neutrons.Carbon-14 has 8 neutrons in its nucleus, along with its 6 protons, which is not a stable combination.Absolute dating provides a numerical age or range in contrast with relative dating which places events in order without any measure of the age between events.In archaeology, absolute dating is usually based on the physical, chemical, and life properties of the materials of artifacts, buildings, or other items that have been modified by humans and by historical associations with materials with known dates (coins and written history).
Particular isotopes are suitable for different applications due to the type of atoms present in the mineral or other material and its approximate age.
Unlike people, you can’t really guess the age of a rock from looking at it.
Yet, you’ve heard the news: Earth is 4.6 billion years old. That corn cob found in an ancient Native American fire pit is 1,000 years old. Geologic age dating—assigning an age to materials—is an entire discipline of its own.
Mountains, erosion, and variations in climate were considered to be punishment for the sins committed by humanity.
Buffon's Iron Sphere Experiments- On the basis of iron sphere cooling experiments, Frenchman Georges de Buffon estimated that the Earth would have needed 75,000 years to cool to its present temperature.